Andy Warhol

앤디 워홀(1928-1987)
Information

  Andy Warhol was a leading figure in the Pop Art movement. Like his contemporaries Roy Lichtenstein and Robert Rauschenberg, Warhol responded to mass-media culture of the 1960s. His silkscreens of cultural and consumer icons—including Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor, Campbell’s Soup Cans, and Brillo Boxes—would make him one of the most famous artists of his generation. “The best thing about a picture is that it never changes, even when the people in it do,” he once explained. Born Andrew Warhola on August 6, 1928 in Pittsburgh, PA, he graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1949. Moving to New York to pursue a career in commercial illustration, the young artist worked for magazine such as Vogue and Glamour. Though Warhol was a gay man, he kept much of his private life a secret, occasionally referencing his sexuality through art. This is perhaps most evident in his drawings of male nudes from the 1950s, and later in his film Sleep (1963), which portrays the poet John Giorno nude. In 1964, Warhol rented a studio loft on East 47th street in Midtown Manhattan which was later known as The Factory. The artist used The Factory as a hub for movie stars, models, and artists, who became fodder for his prints and films. The space also functioned as a performance venue for The Velvet Underground. During the 1980s, Warhol collaborated with several younger artists, including Jean-Michel Basquiat, Francesco Clemente, and Keith Haring. The artist died tragically following complications from routine gall bladder surgery at the age of 58, on February 22, 1987 in New York, NY. After his death, the artist’s estate became The Andy Warhol Foundation and in 1994, a museum dedicated to the artist and his oeuvre opened in his native Pittsburgh. Today, his works are held in the collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, and the Tate Gallery in London, among others

  앤디 워홀은 살아 생전 팝 아트 운동의 선두적인 인물이었다. 로이 리히텐슈타인이나 로버트 라우센버그같은 동시대 예술가들처럼, 워홀은 1960년대 대중매체 문화에 응답하였다. 마릴린 먼로, 엘리자베스 테일러, 캠벨 수프 캔 (Campbell Soup Cans), 브릴로 박스 (Brillo Box) 와 같은 문화적 그리고 소비문화적 상징들을 실크스크린에 담아낸 그의 작품들은 워홀을 그의 세대에서 가장 유명한 예술가로 만들어주었다. “그림이 가진 특징 중 가장 좋은 것은 바로 그림은 변하지 않는다는 점입니다. 그림 안의 사람은 실제로 변하고 있다고 하더라도 말이에요” 라고 그는 설명한 적 있다. 앤드류 워홀라 라는 이름으로 1928년 8월 6일 펜실베이니아의 피츠버그에서 태어난 그는 카네기 공과대학을 1949년에 졸업하였다. 뉴욕에서 상업적 삽화의 커리어를 추구하기 위해 이사한 그는 보그나 글래머 같은 잡지사를 위해서 일했었다. 워홀은 동성애자였으며 그의 사생활의 대부분을 비밀에 부쳤고 종종 그의 성 정체성을 예술을 통해서 알리기도 했다. 이는 아마도 1950년대에 그린 남성 누드화들에서 가장 잘 드러나고 있으며, 그 후에는 1963년에 개봉한 그의 영화 “잠” (Sleep) 에서 보여준 시인 존 조르노의 누드에서도 잘 드러난다. 1964년에 워홀은 스튜디오로 사용할 로프트를 미드타운 맨하탄의 이스트 47번가에 마련하였는데, 이는 나중에 더 팩토리 라는 이름으로 알려지게 된다. 작가는 더 팩토리를 그의 판화와 영화의 사료가 된 영화 배우들과 모델들 그리고 예술가들의 중심지로서 사용했다. 또한 이 공간은 밴드 벨벳 언더그라운드의 공연장으로 사용되기도 하였다. 1980년대에 워홀은 몇몇 젊은 예술가들과 콜라보를 했는데, 쟝-미셸 바스키아, 프란세스코 클레멘테, 키스 해링 등이 그와 함께 했다. 그는 58세의 나이에 1987년 2월 22일 뉴욕에서 쓸개 수술의 합병증으로 사망했는데, 그의 사후 그의 사유지는 앤디워홀 파운데이션이 되었으며, 1994년에는 작가와 그의 작품들을 위해 그의 고향 피츠버그에서 박물관으로 재탄생했다. 오늘날 그의 작품들은 시카고미술관, 뉴욕의 휘트니미국미술박물관, 그리고 런던의 테이트 갤러리 등에 소장되어있다.

Profile

Timeline

1928

Born in Pittsburgh, PA

1945–1949

Studied Pictural Design at Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, PA

1949

Moved to New York after graduation and worked as a commercial artist

1952

First individual show at the Hugo Gallery, exhibiting Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote

1956

First group show at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY

1962

Founded the Factory, New York, NY

1968

Valerie Solanis, founder and sole member of SCUM, nearly kills artist, New York, NY

1969

Founded Interview Magazine, New York, NY

1978

Enrolled in the School of Visual Arts (SVA) in New York, NY

1982

Created cable television show Andy Warhol's TV

1986

Created cable television show Andy Warhol's Fifteen Minutes for MTV

1987

Died in New York, NY

1989

Museum of Modern Art exhibited a major retrospective of his works, New York, NY

1994

Andy Warhol Museum opened in Pittsburgh, NY

Exhibitions

2013–2014

De Chirico / Warhol: Self-Portraits, Galerie Andrea Caratsch, St. Moritz, Switzerland

2013

Pop Art Accrochage, Fluegel-Roncak Gallery, Nuremberg, Germany
Andy Warhol - Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, Utica, USA
Le Pont - MAC Musées d´Art Contemporain Marseille, Marseille, France
This is Not a Love Song - La Virreina - Centre de la Imatge, Barcelona, Spain
En suspension - FRAC - Pays de la Loire, Carquefou, France
Neuerwerbungen FrÜhjahr 2013 - Galerie Ludorff, Dusseldorf, Germany
Selections from the Mary and Michael J. Tatalovich Collection - Haggerty Museum of Art, Milwaukee, USA
The Whole Earth - Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, Germany
Out [o] Fashion Photography: Embracing Beauty - Henry Art Gallery, Seattle, USA
The Polaroid Years - The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Poughkeepsie, USA
Iconic Moments - Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, USA
Andy Warhol – Pop Art Classics - Galerie Fluegel-Roncak, Nuremberg, Germany
Von Kopf bis Fuß - Porträts und Menschenbilder in der Sammlung Würth - Kunsthalle Würth, Schwäbisch Hall, Germany
Don't Be Shy, Don't Hold Back - The Logan Collection At Sfmoma - San Francisco Museum of Modern Art - SFMOMA, San Francisco, USA
Beg, Borrow and Steal - Palm Springs Art Museum, Palm Springs, USA
Legacy: The Emily Fisher Landau Collection - Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, USA
The Pop Object: The Still Life Tradition in Pop Art - Acquavella Galleries, Inc., New York, USA
The Lyon, the Which and the Warhol - Hofstra University Museum, Hempstead, USA
Creating Myth and Icon - Plains Art Museum, Fargo, USA
The 60s In The Guggenheim Collections. From Informel To Pop Art - Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy
Light Sensitive - Nasher Museum of Art, Durham, USA
Dialog Über Grenzen - Die Sammlung Riese - KOG - Kunstforum Ostdeutsche Galerie, Regensburg, Germany
Andy Warhol - Gow Langsford Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand
Pinups & Portraits - IKON Ltd, Santa Monica, USA
Il Guggenheim. L'avanguardia americana 1945–1980 - Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy
Group Show - Gagosian Gallery, Hong Kong
Andy Warhol: Works on Paper - Sperone Westwater Gallery, Lugano, Italy
Andy Warhol: Works on Paper - Sperone Westwater Gallery, New York, USA
Andy Warhol- Pop Art - Galerie der Stadt Tuttlingen, Tuttlingen, Germany
Shooting Stars: Publicity Stills from Early Hollywood and Portraits by Andy Warhol - The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Andy Warhol – Fifteen Minutes of Fame - Kunsthaus Bregenz, Bregenz, Austria
Andy Warhol: Polaroids 1974 - 1987 - The Luckman Fine Arts Complex, Los Angeles, USA
Warhol - Early Drawings - Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk, Denmark

2012

Regarding Warhol: Fifty Artists, Fifty Years, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, USA
Andy Warhol, 15 Minutes Eternal, Artscience Museum, Marina Bay Sands, Singapore. Traveled to Hong Kong Museum of Art
Andy Warhol: Fame and Misfortune, McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, USA
Portraits of Andy Warhol, Ibercaja Obra Social, Zaragoza, Spain. Travelled to Contemporary Art Center of Virginia

2011

Villa Schöningen, Potsdam, Germany
Rivoluzione Warhol, Centro Saint Benin, Aosta, Italy
Picasso to Warhol: Twelve Modern Masters, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, USA
Andy Warhol, Shadows, 1978-1979, Hirshorn Museum, Washington D.C.
Warhol Headlines, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Travelled to Museum fur Modern Kunst, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte
Andy Warhol and Elizabeth Taylor, Gagosian Gallery, New York, USA
Warhol and Basquiat, Arken Museum of Modern Art, Ishoj, Denmark
Warhol and the Diva, The Lowry, Salford Quays, England
Andy Warhol: Ten Portraits of Jews in the Twentieth Century, Waddeson Manor, Buckinghamshire, England
Warhol. Property from the Collection of Gregory McCoy, The Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville, USA
Andy Warhol: Artists Rooms, Southampton City Art Gallery, Southampton, England
American Icons: Andy Warhol and Cars, Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, USA
Graphite on Paper: Andy Warhol Drawings, Kantor Gallery, Los Angeles, USA
Andy Warhol: Cowboys and Indians, Rockwell Museum of Western Art, Corning, USA

2010

Deeply Superficial: Warhol's Voyeurism, Muscarelle Museum of Art, Williamsburg, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol in the 1980s, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, USA (solo)
Faces of Warhol, Focus Exhibition in Three Installments, Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA (solo)

2009

Le grand monde d'Andy Warhol, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris, France (solo)
Andy Warhol Portraits, Greenfield Sacks Gallery, Santa Monica, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol: Through a Glass Starkly, George Segal Gallery, Montclair State University, Montclair, USA (solo)
Warhol Live, The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, USA; Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol, Mr. America, Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango, Bogota, Colombia (solo)
Twisted Pair: Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol, The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, USA
Warhol TV, La Maison Rouge, Paris, France (solo)
Andy Warhol: Pop Politics, Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase, USA (solo)
The Prints of Andy Warhol (From A to B and Back Again), San Jose Museum of Art San Jose, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol: Von Marilyn Bis Mao, Horst-Janssen-Museum, Oldenberg, Germany (solo)
Warhol from the Sonnabend Collection, Gagosian Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol, The Museum Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial, Taipei, Taiwan (solo)
Warhol Live, The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, Canada (solo)
Andy Warhol: Crossroads, Domus Artium (DA2), Salamanca, Spain (solo)
Art for Everyday: Andy Warhol from Object to Practice and Back Again, Museu De Arte Contemporanea Niteroi, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil (solo)
Andy Warhol: Cowboys and Indians, Mint Museum of Art Charlotte, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol: 15 Weeks of Fame, Arkansas Art Center, Little Rock, USA (solo)
Warhol's Jews: Ten Portraits Reconsidered, The Contemporary Jewish Museum, San Francisco, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol Portfolios: Life and Legends, Mint Museum of Art Charlotte, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol: Pop Politics, Currier Museum of Art, Syracuse, USA (solo)
Warhol Presents, Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, USA
Andy Warhol: Polaroid Portraits, Galerie Clic, St. Bartheleny, French West Indies (solo)

2008

Andy Warhol, Stereo Types, Galerie Daniel Blau, Munich, Germany (solo)
Warhol: 15 Min/24 FPS, University Art Museum, California State University, Long Beach, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol: Still-Life Polaroids, Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol by Andy Warhol, Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, Oslo, Norway (solo)
The Eternal Now: Warhol and the Factory: '63-68, Ikon Gallery Birmingham, England (solo)
Rapid Exposure: Warhol in Series, Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol's Silver Clouds, Loyala University Museum of Art, Chicago, USA (solo)
Canis Major: Warhol's Dogs and Cats (and other party animals), The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol Retrospective, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Australia (solo)
Self-Portrait exhibition, La Casa Encendida, Madrid, Spain
Andy Warhol: Larger than Life, Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Canada (solo)
Other Voices, Other Rooms, The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Silent Spring: Warhol's Endangered Species and Vanishing Animals, Morris Museum, Morristown, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol, Centro Cultural de la Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru Lima, Peru (solo)
Andy Warhol Exhibit, New World of Coca-Cola Museum, Atlanta, USA (solo)

2007

Andy Warhol Retrospective, The Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, Scotland (solo)
Andy Warhol Disaster Prints, Kampa Museum Prague, Czech Republic (solo)
Pop Art 1960's - 2000's, Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, Hiroshima, Japan
Andy Warhol Presents, University Art Museum, Santa Barbara, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol's Dream America, Toledo Museum of Art Toledo, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol - Shadows and other signs of life, Galerie Chantal Crousel, Paris, France (solo)
Portraits, Jablonka Galerie, Berlin, Germany
Factory Work: Warhol, Wyeth, and Basquiat, Farnsworth Art Museum, Rockland, USA
Andy Warhol and Minimal Art, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany (solo)
Andy Warhol Retrospective, Samsung Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea (solo)
Warhola Becomes Warhol - Andy Warhol: Early Work, Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, USA (solo)
Pop Goes The West: Featuring Roy Lichtenstein: American Indian Encounters and Andy Warhol's, Cowboys and Indians Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, Indianapolis, USA
Andy Warhol's Dream America, Nevada Museum of Art, Reno, USA (solo)
Prints of Andy Warhol (From A to B and Back again), Kampa Museum Prague, Czech Republic (solo)
Time Capsule 64, The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, USA

2006

Warhol's World, Hauser & Wirth, London, England
Man's Best Friend, Lococo Fine Art, St. Louis, USA
Andy Warhol: Vanishing Animals, Medium SARL, St. Barthelemy, French West Indies (solo)
Andy Warhol-Drawings, JGM. Galerie, Paris, France
Skulls, Galerie Andrea Caratsch, Zurich, Switzerland

2005

Andy Warhol Self-Portraits, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Scotland (solo)
Small Drawings of Children & Dolls, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany

2004

Andy Warhol - Selbstportraits, Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany (solo)
Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Vaduz, Liechtenstein
The Late Andy Warhol - The Late Work, Museum kunst palast, Dusseldorf, Germany (solo)
Andy Warhol: Motion Pictures, Kunstwerke, Berlin, Germany (solo)
Andy Warhol, Anton Kern Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
Andy Warhol - LATE PAINTINGS, Gagosian Gallery, Los Angeles, USA (solo)

2003

Andy Warhol - The Time Capsules, Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, Germany (solo)
Warhol - Screen Tests, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA (solo)
Ladies & Gentlemen, Sex Parts & Torsos, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany
Cosmos, Colleges and Drawings, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany
E. Fischl, M. Barceló, F. Clemente, A. Katz, P. Taaffe, A. Warhol, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne; TEFAF, Maastricht, Germany

2002

Portrait Drawings/Sherrie Levine: Skulls, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany

2001

Retrospective, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany

2000

Headschots, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany

1999

Modern Madonna, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany
Photography, The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, USA; Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany (solo)

1998

Reframing Andy Warhol: Constructing American Myths, Heroes and Cultural Icons, The Art Gallery, University of Maryland, College Park, USA
Knives, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany

1997

Egg Paintings, Jablonka Galerie, Cologne, Germany

1993

Andy Warhol: Abstract, Kunsthalle, Basel, Switzerland; Östereichisches Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Vienna, Östereich; IVAM, Valencia, Spain (solo)

1992

Andy Warhol Polaroids 1971 - 1986, Pace/MacGill Gallery, New York, USA (travelled to London, England and Paris, France) (solo)

1991

Andy Warhol's Video and Television, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA (solo)

1990

Andy Warhol: Films, IVAM, Valencia, Spain (solo)
Andy Warhol: Cars-The Last Pictures, Kunstmuseum, Berne, Switzerland (solo)
The Prints of Andy Warhol, Cartier Foundation for Contemporary Art, New York, USA (solo)

1989

Andy Warhol: A Retrospective, Hayward Gallery, London, England (solo)
Andy Warhol: Shadow Paintings, Gagosian Gallery, New York, USA (solo)

1986

Andy Warhol - Neue Grafik Details of Renaissance Paintings, Heinz Holtmann, Cologne, Germany

1983

Andy Warhol, Heinz Holtmann, Cologne, Germany

1982

Andy Warhol - Neue Bilder und Grafik, Heinz Holtmann, Cologne, Germany

1976

Venice Biennale, Venice, Italy

1970

Museum of Contempary Art, Chicago, USA
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Musée d´Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, France
Museum of Art, Pasadena, USA

1969

Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany

1968

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden

1967

Galerie Rudolf Zwirner, Cologne, Germany
Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, France

1966

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, USA
Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, USA

1965

Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia, USA

1964

Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, France
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, USA
Stable Gallery, New York, USA

1963

Fetus Gallery, Los Angeles, USA

1962

Fetus Gallery, Los Angeles, USA

1952

Andy Warhol: Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote, Hugo Gallery, New York, USA (solo)