Frank Stella

프랭크 스텔라 (b.1936)
Information

  American artist Frank Stella has remained a prominent and innovative practitioner of abstract painting since the late fifties. Born in 1936 in Malden, Massachusetts, Stella studied painting at the Phillips Academy in Andover and at Princeton University, Where he graduated in 1958 with a degree in history. In 1959 he moved to New York and completed his first body of mature work,the Black paintings. At this time ,several of his paintings were included in group exhibitions, including "Sixteen Americans" at the Museum of Modern Art, New York .

  In 1960 Stella's Aluminum paintings, his earliest shaped canvases, were the subject of his first solo show at the Leo Castelli Gallery . He then took his first trip to Europe, making sketches in Sapin for what would become the Concentric Squares and Mitered Mazes. He also had his first show at Galerie Lawrence, Paris of work from the Benjamin Moore series. During this time, Stella's work was included in group exhibitions at both the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In the later sixties ,he was represented in the U.S. pavillion at the XXXII Venice Biennale, and he began exhibition regularly abroad.

  Stella has conceived his work in series since the early sixties, developing drawings and maquettes for a new project while completing the finished works of the previous one. While concluding his work on the Protractor and Saskatchewan series,during the early seventies, he began the the Polish Village series, named for 17th.18th and 19th century synagogues destroyed in Poland by the Nazis. In different versions of the works, he moved from low-relief collage to high-relief works with surfaces of felt and Painted cardboard . At the same time, he became increasingly involved in Printmarking ,creating series of Prints at Gemini G.E.L. , Los Angeles,and Petersburg Press, New York Which repeated images that first appeared in earlier Painting series. In 1975, he began working with Kenneth Tyler of Tyler Graphics,with whom he continued to collaborate since.

  Stella was extremely productive during the seventies, developing several major bodies of work, including the Diderot series, the largest of the Concentric Square pictures: and ,the Brazilian series, etched and Painted metal reliefs named for areas in and around Rio de Janeiro. these were followed by the Exotic Bird and the Indian Bird works, freely painted metal reliefs whose titles were inspired by the artist's travels and new interest in bird-watching. During this time, Stella's work was featured in many individual and group exhibitions shown internationally. He also began to travel extensively thoughout Europe,as well as to Brazil and India.

Stella lives and works in New York City.


  1936년 5월 12일 미국 매사추세츠주 몰덴에서 태어났다. 필립스 아카데미에서 회화를 배웠고 프린스턴 대학에서 역사를 배웠다. 그의 첫 직업은 페인트공이었으며 처음에는 추상표현주의 그림을 그렸다. 1960년 레오 카스텔리(Leo Castelli) 화랑에서 첫 개인전을 가졌다. 1983년 하버드 대학교의 찰스 노턴 교수가 되었다. 


  1958년 뉴욕에 정착하면서부터 크고 간결한 디자인을 특징으로 하는, 《톰린슨 공원》(1959)과 같은 새로운 회화를 선보였다. 그것은 형체와 색채의 관계에 의한 조형을 배척하고, 연역적 방법에서 화면 윤곽을 화면 내부에 되풀이하는 '검정 줄무늬 그림'이었다. 이는 회화의 평면성을 강조한 것으로, 그 대담함 때문에 그는 단시간에 주목을 받게 되었다.


  1960년대 전반에는 줄무늬와 캔버스의 형태 또는 색채의 특성을 탐구하여 벽에 걸면 화면의 평면성을 유지하면서도 조각과 같은 조형성을 띠는 작품을 그렸다. 1966년 불규칙한 다각형(irregular polygon) 시리즈에서는 무채색의 그림에서 벗어나 색면의 대비를 시도하였다. 곧이어 발표된 각도기(protractor) 시리즈와 서스캐처원(Saskatchewan) 시리즈는 그의 작품 가운데서 가장 장식적이며 화려한 작품이다. 


  1970년대 뉴욕 현대미술관에서 열린 대규모 회고전 이후 발표한 폴란드 마을(Polish village) 시리즈는 캔버스와 물감에서 벗어나 펠트·골판지·합판·섬유판 등을 사용하여 구성주의에 대한 관심을 보였다. 특이한 새(exotic birds) 시리즈는 회화를 일종의 건축(build)으로 보는 듯 평면적 회화가 아닌 공간적 회화를 구사하였다. 


  이때부터 화려한 색채가 바탕이 되는 화면 구성이 주가 되어 미니멀아트 경향과는 거리가 멀어졌다. 인도의 새(Indian birds) 시리즈에서는 번쩍이는 표면과 야한 색채 그리고 철망(grille)을 사용하는 등 회화라고 부르기 어려울 정도의 입체 작품을 만들었다. 
1980년대의 경주로(circuits) 시리즈·파편(shards) 시리즈 등은 각기 다른 관점에서 회화적 문제를 다룬 연작이다. 1990년대 그는 독립된 입체 작품을 선보였다. 《메두사의 뗏목》 《윗슨과 상어》와 같이 자신의 회화 작품의 이름을 본따 독립된 입체 작품을 만들었으며 이는 추상 조각에서 결여된 회화적인 드라마와 박진감을 접목시킨 것이다. 


  주로 시리즈 작품을 만들었던 그는 마티스처럼 한 가지 소재나 주제를 계속해서 변형하는 끊임없는 실험을 계속했다. 일생 동안 회화의 특성에 대해 고민한 화가로서 조형에 가까운 작품조차도 회화로 규정하였다. 작품으로 《Abra Variation I》(1969), 《Silverstone》(1981), 《September 7-November 24》(1996) 등이 있다.

Profile

 1936    Born in Malden, MA  

   

 1950 - 1954    Studied Painting under Patrick Morgan, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA  

   

 1954 - 1958    Studied History and Art History under Stephen Greene and William Seitz, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ  

   

 1958    Moved to New York, NY  

   

 1967    First Prize, International Biennial Exhibition of Paintings, Tokyo, Japan  

   

 1979    Awarded the Claude M. Fuess Distinguished Service Award, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA  

   

 1981    New York City Mayor’s Award for Arts and Culture, New York, NY  

   

 1981    Medal for Painting, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Skowhegan, ME  

   

 1981    Honorary Fellowship, Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem, Israel  

   

 1983    Appointed the Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA  

   

 1984    Honorary Doctor of Arts, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ  

   

 1985    Award of American Art, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, PA  

   

 1985    Honorary Degree, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH  

   

 1986    Honorary Degree, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA  

   

 1989    Ordre des Arts et des Lettres from the French Government  

   

 1992    Awarded the Barnard Medal of Distinction  

   

 1998    Gold Medal for Graphic Art Award, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York, NY  

   

 2001    Gold Medal of the National Arts Club, New York, NY  

   

 2010    Received the 2009 National Medal of Arts from President Barack Obama at an East Room ceremony at the White House on February 25, 2010  

   

    Lives and works in New York, NY  

  
 Selected Exhibitions 
  
 2014 - 2015   Retrospective, Organized by the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX; Traveling to the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA; Whitney Museum of American Art, Downtown Renzo Piano Building, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2011   Stella & Calatrava. The Michael Kohlhaas Curtain, Two-person collaborative exhibition with Frank Stella and Santiago Calatrava, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany 

   

 2011   Stella Sounds: The Scarlatti K Series, Phillips Collection, Washington, DC (solo) 

   

 2011   Frank Stella: Connections, Haunch of Venison, London, UK (solo) 

   

 2010 - 2011   Frank Stella: Irregular Polygons, Curated by Brian Kennedy, The Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (solo) 

   

 2010   Frank Stella: New Works, Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden (solo) 

   

 2009   Polychrome Relief, Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2009   Moby Dick: Frank Stella and Herman Melville, Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, MI 

   

 2008   Polygons to Printmaking: The Work of Frank Stella 1958 – 1997, Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ (solo) 

   

 2008   Frank Stella, Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden (solo) 

   

 2008   Between the Lines, Stephane Simoens, Knokke, Belgium 

   

 2007   Samuelis Baumgarte Galerie, Bielefeld, Germany 

   

 2007   Frank Stella, Haas & Fuchs, Berlin, Germany (solo) 

   

 2007   Modern American Masters, Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, San Diego, CA 

   

 2007   Frank Stella: Recent Works, Galerie Terminus, Munich, Germany (solo) 

   

 2007   Frank Stella, Galerie Ficher Rohr, Basel, Switzerland (solo) 

   

 2007   Frank Stella on the Roof, The Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Roof Garden, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2007   Frank Stella: Painting into Architecture, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2007   Frank Stella: New Work, Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2007   Modern American Masters, Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, San Diego, CA 

   

 2006   Black Paintings. Haus der Kunst, Munich, Germany 

   

 2006   Frank Stella 1958, Harvard University Art Museums, Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Cambridge, MA (solo) 

   

 2006   Frank Stella, Galerie Thomas, Munich, Germany (solo) 

   

 2006   Frank Stella: Major Works from the von Kleist Series, Danese Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2006   Frank Stella: Collages and Related Sculpture from the von Kleist Series, Jacobson Howard Gallery, New York, NY; In conjunction with Danese Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2006   Samuelis Baumgarte Galerie, Bielefeld, Germany 

   

 2005   Frank Stella, John Berggruen Gallery, San Francisco, CA (solo) 

   

 2005   Frank Stella, Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2005   Frank Stella’s Moby Dick Series Prints, National Museum of Fine Arts, Santiago, Chile (solo) 

   

 2005   Frank Stella, Waddington Galleries, London (solo) 

   

 2005   Frank Stella’s Moby Dick Series Prints, The Museum of Latin American Art in Buenos Aires, Collection Constantini, Buenos Aires, Argentina (solo) 

   

 2005   New Works, Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden (solo) 

   

 2005   Black Paintings, Haus der Kunst, Munich, Germany 

   

 2004   Singular Forms (Sometimes Repeated) – Art from 1951 to the Present, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY 

   

 2004   Frank Stella - A Breakthrough in Abstraction - Exotic Birds, Gagosian Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2004   Frank Stella, Moby Dick and Imaginary Places, Galerie Jamileh Weber, Zürich, Switzerland (solo) 

   

 2004   What You See Is What You See: Frank Stella and the Anderson Collection, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA, USA (solo) 

   

 2004   Frank Stella, Galerie Terminus, Munich, Germany (solo) 

   

 2004   Frank Stella: New Works, McClain Gallery, Houston, TX (solo) 

   

 2003   Frank Stella, The Nagoya City Art Museum, Nagoya, Japan (solo) 

   

 2003   Frank Stella, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, UK (solo) 

   

 2003   Frank Stella: Recent Work, Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2003   Frank Stella, IWATE Museum of Art, Morioka City, Japan (solo) 

   

 2003   Work Ethic, The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD 

   

 2002   Frank Stella: Hacilar 1999-2001, Greenberg Van Doren Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2001   Heinrich von Kleist by Frank Stella, JENOPTIK Gallery, Jena, Germany (solo) 

   

 2001   Frank Stella, Galerie Hans Strelow, Düsseldorf, Germany (solo) 

   

 2001   Frank Stella: Recent Work, Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2001   Frank Stella, Cantor Arts Center at Stanford University, Stanford, CA (solo) 

   

 2001   Frank Stella, Waddington Galleries, London, UK (solo) 

   

 2001   Frank Stella: Recent Paintings and Sculpture, Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago, IL (solo) 

   

 2001   Frank Stella, Recent Works, Locks Gallery, Philadelphia, PA (solo) 

   

 2001   Frank Stella, Love Letters and Correspondence. Barbara Mathes Gallery, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 2001   Prince of Homburg, Installation on the lawn of the National Gallery, Washington, DC 

   

 2001   Heinrich von Kleist, Traveling exhibition, Jena, Hildesheim, Stuttgart, Berlin and Singapore 

   

 1999 - 2000   Frank Stella at 2000: Changing the Rules, Museum of Contemporary Art Miami, Miami, FL 

   

 1999 - 2000   The American Century: Art & Culture 1900-2000, Whitney Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, NY 

   

 1999   Abstraction, Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris, France 

   

 1999   Drawing is Another Kind of Language, Parrish Art Museum, organized by Harvard Museums, Southampton, NY 

   

 1999   Frank Stella: Easel Paintings, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, UK (solo) 

   

 1999   Frank Stella: New Work, Sperone Westwater, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 1998   Rendez-vous, Solomon R. Guggenheim, New York, NY 

   

 1998   Frank Stella: New Paintings, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, UK (solo) 

   

 1998   Samuelis Baumgarte Galerie, Bielefeld, Germany 

   

 1998   Frank Stella: Smoke Rings, Knoedler & Company, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 1997   Samuelis Baumgarte Galerie, Bielefeld, Germany 

   

 1987   Retrospective, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (solo) 

   

 1970   Retrospective, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (solo) 

  
 Selected Public Collections 

  
    Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY  

   

    Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT  

   

    The Museum of Fine Arts Houston, Houston, TX  

   

    The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY  

   

    National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC  

   

    National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC  

   

    Philadelphia Art Museum, Philadelphia, PA  

   

    The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC  

   

    San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA  

   

    Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA  

   

    The Tate, London, England  

   

    Vancouver Art Museum, Vancouver, BC, Canada  

   

    Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, IN  

   

    Kawamura Memorial Museum of Art, Sakura, Japan  

   

    Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO  

   

    Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland  

   

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY  

   

    Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX  

   

    Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France  

   

    Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL  

   

    Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA  

   

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA  

   

    Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC  

   

    Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, TX  

   

    Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO  

   

    Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA  

   

    Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, MA  

   

    Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany  

   

    Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY  

   

    The Hara Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan  

   

    High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA  

   

    Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC  

   

    Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, MA  

   

    Phillips Academy, Andover, MA  

   

    Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY  

   

    Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia  

   

    Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada  

   

    Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada  

   

    Baltimore Museum, Baltimore, MD  

   

    Brooklyn Museum, New York, NY  

   

    Cleveland Art Museum, Cleveland, OH  

   

    Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX