Lynn Chadwick

​린 채드윅(1914-2003)
Information

  Lynn Russell Chadwick was born in London on 24 November 1914. After attending the Merchant Taylor School and a stay in France, Chadwick worked for several London architect's practices between 1933 and 1939. At that time he focused on techniques of draughtsmanship and watercolour as well as oil painting.


  During the second world war Lynn Chadwick served a stint as a land labourer before volunteering as a Royal Navy pilot and serving between 1941 and 1945. On his return to London, he began to experiment with mobiles and earned a living, not unsuccessfully, as a freelance designer until 1952.
Collaboration with the architect Rodney Thomas proved a formative influence on Chadwick and from 1951 Chadwick received commissions for sculpture. He had a solo show at Gimpel Fils in 1950.


  For his figures, Lynn Chadwick mainly used pieces of iron welded together, which, as mobiles, are reminiscent of Calder's work but as stabiles filled with concrete stand on long legs and resemble a cross between abstract constructs and figurative skeletal beings. 
Chadwick achieved instant recognition in the 1950s when his objects were awarded numerous prizes (Venice 1956, Padua 1959, Lugano 1960) and were shown at exhibitions of international stature (1952 and 1956 Venice Biennales).


  Lynn Chadwick received commissions for more monumental sculptures, gradually transforming his rough, often aggressive-looking animal figures into softer, even more sentimental compositions with anthropomorphic features. While continuing to do standing figures, Chadwick turned increasingly often to recumbent or seated pairs of figures.


  At home in Lypiatt Park, Gloucestershire, Chadwick established a sculpture park of his own. 


  Long since a Commander of the British Empire (1964), Chadwick was also made an Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 1985. Although his work was in its heyday in the 1950s, Chadwick continued to develop his figures within the context of his material idiom until the century closed. 
By the time Lynn Chadwick died in Stroud, Gloucestershire on 25 April 2003, he was one of the best-known sculptors of the post-war era.

  린 러셀 채드윅은 1914년 11월 24일에 런던에서 출생하였다. 사립 학교인 Merchant Taylor’s School 을 다니고 프랑스에 잠시 체류한 그는, 런던 건축가들의 수습생으로 1933년부터 1939년 까지 근무했다. 그 기간 동안 그는 데생 능력과 수채화 그리고 유화의 기술들 배우는 데 전념했다.

2차대전 당시 린 채드윅은 1941년부터 1945년까지 왕립 해군 조종사로 자원입대하여 근무하기 전에는 잠시 건축 제도가로 일하기도 했다. 종전 후 런던으로 돌아오고 나서 그는 모빌을 가지고 실험하며, 프리랜서 디자이너로서 1952까지 꽤나 성공적인 삶을 살았다.

  건축가 로드니 토마스와 함께 한 콜라보레이션은 채드윅이 조형적 영감을 자주 받는다는 것을 증명하며, 1951년부터 채드윅은 조각을 위한 커미션을 받기도 한다. 그는 런던의 Gimpel Fils에서 1950년 개인전을 가졌다.

  그는 주로 용접된 철제 작품을 만들어 냈는데, 이는 그의 모빌 작품들과 함께 캘더의 영향력을 강하게 추억하지만서도 스테빌은 콘크리트로 가득 차 긴 다리 위에 서있으며 이는 추상적 건축물과 조형적 뼈대의 융합을 닮기도 하였다.

  채드윅은 1950년대에 수많은 상을 받으며 거의 일순간 조각가로서 인정 받는다. 1956년 베니스, 1959년 파두아, 1960년 루가노 등에서 상을 받았으며, 국제적 레벨의 전시회에서도 전시한 적 있다 (1952 그리고 1956 베니스 비엔날레).

린 채드윅은 더 많은 기념비적 조각을 위한 커미션을 받았으며, 점진적으로 그의

거칠고 사나워 보이는 동물 모양에서 더 부드럽고, 감상적인 구성을 띄기까지 하는 의인화 된 특징을 띄는 것으로 작품을 변화시켰다. 서 있는 형태의 조각을 하  는 와중에, 채드윅은 누워있거나 앉아있는 모습의 조각으로도 꽤 자주 변신을 시도하였다.

  Cloucestershire 의 Lypiatt Park에 있는 사옥에 채드윅은 그 자신만의 조각 공원을 설립했다.

 대영제국훈장 (1946)을 받은 후 한참 뒤인 1985년에 채드윅은 프랑스 문화부 장관 표창 (Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres)을 수여했다. 그의 작품은 1950년대에 절정기를 맞았다고 볼 수 있지만, 채드윅은 1900년대가 끝나가기 전까지 꾸준히 그의 형태들을 그의 물체적 언어의 문맥 하에서 발전시키곤 하였다.

  2003년 4월 25일 린 채드윅이 Stroud, Groucestershire에서 세상을 떴을 때, 그는 이미 2차대전 후 가장 유명한 조각가 중 한 명 이었다.

Profile

Timeline

1914

Born in Barnes, UK

1933–1939

Trained as an architectural draughtsman

1941–1944

Pilot in Fleet Air Arm, Royal Navy

1947

First mobile shown at Building Trades Exhibition

1944–1949

Returned to work for architect Rodney Thomas, London

1949

Small mobile for the window of Gimpel Fils, London, as part of a mixed exhibition

1950

First one-man show at Gimpel Fils, London

1947–1952

Produced textile, furniture, and architectural designs

1953

One of the 12 semi-finalists for The Unknown Political Prisoner International Sculpture Competition

1956

Won the International Prize for Sculpture, XXVIII Biennale, Venice

1958

Moved to Lypiatt Park

1959

Won first prize, III Concorso Internazionale del Bronzetto, Padua

1961

Exhibited hors concours at VI Bienal de São Paulo, Brazil

1962

Prize winner at VII Esposizione di Bianco e Nero, Lugano

1962

Artist in residence for a term at Ontario College of Art, Toronto

1962

Took part in a sculpture project for Italsider S.p.A, Genoa with Alexander Calder and David Smith for the Festival dei Due Monde, Rome

1964

Appointed Commander, Order of the British Empire (CBE)

1965

Elected member of the Academia di San Luca, Rome

1968

Environmental sculpture for Milan Esposizione Triennale

1988

Invited by the Director of the XLIII Venice Biennale to contribute Back to Venice for a special international sculpture survey

1988

Appointed to the Order of Andres Bello, First Class, Venezuela

1993

Created Commandeur, Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, France

1995

Created Associate, Academie Royale de Belgique

1995

Honorary Fellow, Cheltenham & Gloucester College of Higher Education

1998

Honorary Fellow, Bath Spa University College, Bath

2001

Elected Senior Royal Academician, Royal Academy of Arts, London

2003

Died on April 25, at Lypiatt Park, buried there in the Pinetum

2004

Awarded the Goldhill Award for Sculpture, Royal Academy of Arts

Exhibitions

2007

Lynn Chadwick: Prints and Maquettes, Gallery Pangolin, Gloucestershire (solo)

2006

Beaux Arts, London (solo)

2006

Osborne Samuel, London (solo)

2005

Celebrating Chadwick, The Museum in the Park, Gloucestershire (solo)

2004

Canary Wharf, Osborne Samuel Gallery, London (solo)

2004

Lynn Chadwick 1914 - 2003, Dexia, Luxembourg curated by Gallery Pangolin (solo)

2003

Coming from the Dark, Gallery Pangolin, Gloucestershire (solo)

2003

Tate Britain, Duveen Galleries, London (solo)

2002

Buschlen Mowatt Gallery, Palm Desert, California (solo)

2002

Tasende Gallery, Los Angeles, California (solo)

2001

Beaux Arts, London (solo)

2001

JGM Galerie, Paris (solo)

1999

Beaux Arts, London (solo)

1996

Gimpel Fils and Berkeley Square Gallery, London (solo)

1996

Symbols for ’51, The Royal Festival Hall, London

1996

Les Champs de la Sculpture, Champs Elyseés, Paris

1994

A Changing World of Sculpture from the British Council Collection, The State Museum, St Petersburg, Russia

1994

Beaux Arts, Bath (solo)

1993

Galeria Freites, Caracas (solo)

1993

The Economist Plaza, London (solo)

1992

Gallery Universe, Tokyo (solo)

1992

Galleria Blu, Milan (solo)

1992

Galerie Marbeau, Paris (solo)

1991

Marlborough Gallery, New York (solo)

1991

The Museum of Modern Art, Toyama (solo)

1991

Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Wakefield (solo)

1990

Museo de Arte Contemporaneo Sofia Imber, Caracas (solo)

1989

Marlborough Fine Art, London (solo)

1989

Marlborough Gallery, New York (solo)

1988

Galeria Freites, Caracas (solo)

1988

Modern British Sculpture from the Collection, Tate Gallery, Liverpool

1987

Erika Meyerovich Gallery, San Francisco (solo)

1986

British Embassy, sponsored by Christie’s Contemporary Art (solo)

1986

Beaux Arts, Bath (solo)

1986

Galleria Blu, Milan (solo)

1985

Marlborough Gallery, New York (solo)

1985

Recalling the Fifties: British Painting and Sculpture 1950-60, Serpentine Gallery, London

1984

Summer Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London

1984

Marlborough Fine Art, London (solo)

1983

Mercury Gallery, Edinburgh (solo)

1982

Christie’s Contemporary Art, New York (with Victor Pasmore)

1981

British Sculpture in the Twentieth Century, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London

1980

Galerie Regards, Paris (solo)

1979

Keys Gallery, Londonderry (solo)

1978

Marlborough Fine Art, London (solo)

1977

A Silver Jubilee Exhibition of Contemporary British Sculpture, Battersea Park, London

1977

Carved, Modelled, Constructed: three aspects of British 20th century sculpture, Tate Gallery, London

1975

Arte Contacto Galeria de Arte, Caracas (in collaboration with Marlborough Gallery, New York) (solo)

1975

Sculpture in Holland Park, London

1974

Marlborough Fine Art, London (solo)

1974

Jiyugaoka Gallery, Tokyo (solo)

1972

Galleria Blu, Milan (solo)

1971

Galeria Wspólczesna, Warsaw (solo)

1971

IVème Exposition Internationale de Sculpture Contemporaine, Musée Rodin, Paris

1969

Galerie Withofs, Brussels (solo)

1968

Galleria Blu, Milan (solo)

1966

Marlborough New London Gallery (solo)

1966

Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo

1965

British Sculpture in the Sixties, Tate Gallery, London

1965

Sculptures from Albert A. List Family Collection, New York Art Center

1964

Contemporary British Sculpture (Arts Council open-air touring exhibition)

1964

Exhibition of Venice Biennale Prizewinners since 1948, Galeria d’Arte Moderne, Venice

1963

Sculpture in the Open Air (London County Council exhibition), Battersea Park, London

1963

Galleria Blu, Milan (with Kenneth Armitage)

1962

Museum of Modern Art, Kamakura, Japan (with Kenneth Armitage)

1962

British Art Today, San Francisco Museum of Art, Dallas Museum of Contemporary Arts, Santa Barbara Museum of Art

1961

2ème Exposition Internationale de Sculpture Contemporaine, Musée Rodin, Paris

1961

Peter Lanyon, William Scott, Lynn Chadwick, Merlyn Evans, VI Biennale de São Paulo, Museo de Arte Moderna (solo)

1961

Marlborough Fine Art, London (solo)

1960

Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hanover (with Kenneth Armitage)

1959

John Moores Liverpool Exhibition 2, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool

1958

50 Ans d’Art Moderne, Palais International des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

1958

Galerie Daniel Cordier, Paris (solo)

1957

Saidenberg Gallery, New York (solo)

1957

Contemporary Art – Acquisitions 1954-1957, Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York

1957

Sculpture 1850 and 1950, Holland Park, London

1956

The Seasons, Tate Gallery, London

1956

Exposition Internationale de Sculpture Contemporaine, Musée Rodin, Paris

1956

XXVIII Biennale, Venice (with Ivon Hitchens)

1955

Young British Sculptors (touring exhibition by the Arts Club of Chicago)

1955

54th London Group, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London

1954

Sculpture in the Open Air, Holland Park, London

1953

The Unknown Political Prisoner (sponsored by the Institute for Contemporary Arts), Tate Gallery, London

1953

IXème Salon de Mai, Palais de New York, Paris

1953

2ème Biennale de la Sculpture, Middelheim Park, Antwerp

1952

New Aspects of British Sculpture, XXXVI Biennale, Venice

1952

Gimpel Fils, London (solo)

1951

Festival of Britain, South Bank, London

1950

Gimpel Fils, London (solo)