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Namjune Paik

白南準  백남준(1932-2006)

Nam June Paik (1932–2006) was a performance artist, video artist, musician, sculptor, and writer who spent most of his working life in Germany and the United States. From 1952 until 1956, Paik studied music and aesthetics at the University of Tokyo. Shortly thereafter, he moved to Munich and continued to study music at the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität. During the 1960s, Paik worked with the artist group known as Fluxus, for which he created performance pieces, experimental films and music. Paik collaborated with the composer John Cage, with whom he developed a long-term friendship. In addition to composing and performing music, Paik experimented with television broadcasts, and is widely recognized as the first artist to utilize television and video for artistic expression. 

In 1964, Paik moved to New York and began a long collaborative relationship with cellist Charlotte Moorman. Despite his use of different media and his prolific body of work, Paik is best known for his video installations using television sets. Paik collected and modified old televisions, sometimes filling them with water and goldfish, candles, or assemblages of assorted objects; alternatively, Paik frequently kept the sets reasonably intact but changed the wiring and circuitry to alter the television’s color and display. Many of these video works, which were displayed either in groups or individually, were exhibited in a 1963 show called Exposition of Music - Electronic Television. 



  세계적인 비디오 아티스트이자 미디어 아트의 아버지, 백남준(1932-2006)은 20세기 글로벌 문화계의 대표적 아이콘으로 불리고 있습니다. 그는 일찍이 일본으로 건너가 미술사와 미학, 음악학, 작곡 등을 공부했으며, 1956년 독일로 유학을 떠나 현대 음악을 전공했습니다. 1958년 전위음악가 존 케이지(John Cage)와의 운명적 만남으로 자신의 인생과 예술세계에 일대 전환을 맞이하며, 1961년 플럭서스(Fluxus) 운동의 창시자 조지 마키우나스(George Machiunas)를 통해 플럭서스의 창립 멤버가 되어 요셉 보이스 등과 함께 독일 플럭서스 운동을 주도하며 미술, 철학, 첨단 테크놀로지가 결합된 행위 예술 공연과 전시로 많은 화제를 일으켰습니다.

  백남준은 이후에 유럽에서 미국으로 활동 무대를 넓혀 그의 왕성한 예술세계를 펼쳤습니다. 그는 오늘날의 IT시대를 일찍이 예견하였으며, 50여년 동안 TV와 비디오, 미디어 테크놀로지를 조각, 페인팅, 드로잉, 퍼포먼스, 설치 등 미술의 다양한 카테고리에 접목시켜 예술의 영역을 대폭 확장시키고, 관객들에게 ‘비디오아트’ 라는 새로운 예술의 시대의 문을 열어준 선지자(Visionary)였습니다.

  그의 비디오아트는 음악의 시각화라는 발상에서 출발하여 테크놀로지와 인간정신의 새로운 충돌과 융합을 보여준 최초이면서 본격적인 뉴미디어 아트입니다. 또한 백남준은 미술/ 비 미술, 전통/현대, 예술/기술, 동양/서양 등의 구획화, 범주화에 얽매이지 않는, 생각의 경계를 하나씩 무너뜨려 가며 생각이 자유롭게 유목하는 글로벌적 삶을 살았습니다.

  그는 다양한 작품들을 통해서 대중에게 재미와 감동을 주고 “관람자가 참여하는 예술, 서로 소통하는 예술’을 꿈꾸었으며, 나아가 새로운 세계의 비전을 보여주었습니다.




Born in Seoul, South Korea


Graduated from the University of Tokyo, Japan


Studied History of Music at Munich University, Germany
Studied Composition at Freiburg Conservatory, Freiburg, Germany


Participated in the Fluxus-Festival, Wiesbaden


Worked at WNET's TV lab in New York, NY


Taught at Kunstakademie Dusseldorf, Germany


Elected a member of the Akademie der Kunste, Berlin, Germany


Received the Skowhegan Medal for Video, ME


Received the Goslar Kaiserringes Award 
Received the UNESCO Picasso Medal


Received Best Pavilion at the Venice Biennale, Italy


Received the Kyoto Award


Received the International Distinguished Artist Award, Miami, FL


Received National Arts Club Artists Award, New York, NY


Died in Miami, FL



This is Not a Love Song - La Virreina - Centre de la Imatge, Barcelona 
Die Bildhauer. Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, 1945 bis heute - K20 Grabbeplatz, Dusseldorf 
Video Vintage 1963-1983 - Beirut Art Center, Beirut 
Storage Telling I - Extra-ordinary - Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht 
sous influences - arts plastiques et psychotropes - La Maison Rouge, Paris


Nam June Paik: Global Visionary - Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC


Nam June Paik - LEE galerie BERLIN, Berlin 
VIDEO SCREENING 2 2011 - Center for Contemporary Art, CCA Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 
In the Tower: Nam June Paik - The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 
Nam June Paik - Auditorium Parco della Musica, Rome


Nam June Paik - FACT (Foundation for Art and Creative Technology), Liverpool (England) 
Nam June Paik - Tate Liverpool, Liverpool (England) 
Nam June Paik - Museum Kunstpalast, Dusseldorf 
Nam June Paik - Galleria Six, Milan


Media Alchemy - Beall Center for Art + Technology, Irvine, CA 
Nam June Paik - Johyun Gallery - Busan, Busan 
Nam June Paik Live Feed: 1972 -1994 - James Cohan Gallery - New York, New York City, NY 
Nam June Paik - CAFA Art Museum - China Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing 
Nam June Paik - Music for all Senses - Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig - MUMOK , Vienna


Nam June Paik. Works from the ZKM Collection, Foyer of the EnBW, Karlsruhe, Germany (solo)


Nam June Paik , doART Beijing, China (solo)


Bye Bye, Nam June Paik, The Watari Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan (solo)


Nam June Paik: Global Groove, Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin, Germany


Nam June Paik: Drawings, Mano Gallery, Seoul, South Korea


Museum fur Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt 
Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, Duisburg


The Worlds of Nam June Paik, Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
Centre d’Art Contemporain, Geneva, Switzerland 
Guggenheim Bilbao, Spain
Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, South Korea 
Over the Century, Galerie BHAK, Seoul, South Korea


Museum fur Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt 
Museum fur Gegenwartskunst, Basel, Switzerland
Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany 
Guggenheim Museum, New York 
The World of Nam June Paik, Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY; Hoam Museum, Seoul, South Korea


Medium Is The Message, TV Gallery, Moscow, Russia (solo) 
Nam June Paik: Fluxus/Video, Kunsthalle, Bremen, Germany


The Concrete Signal, College of Pennsylvania Galleries,York, PA


Galerie Bhak, Seoul, South Korea (solo)
Kim Foster Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
Holly Solomon Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
Anthology Film Archives, New York, NY (solo) 
National Museum of American Art, Washington 
Museum of Contemporary Art, Jacksonville, FL 
Skulpture Projects in Munster, Westfalisches Landesmuseum, Munster, Germany


Museum of Art, San Jose 
Culturgest, The Electronic Super Highway: Nam June Paik in the Nineties, Lisbon


Gallery Hyundai, Seoul


The Howard Wise Gallery: TV as a Creative Medium, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY


Feedback and Feedforth, The Watari Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan
Holly Solomon Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
Artist as Nomad, German Pavilion, Venice Biennale 1993, Venice, Italy (solo)


Pour la Suite du Monde, Musée D'art Contemporain de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
New Video Sculptures, Galerie Hans Mayer, Dusseldorf, Germany (solo)
Eco-lumbus and Rocketship to Virtual Venus, Korean Pavilion, World Expo, Seville, Spain (solo)
Nam June Paik: Retrospective, Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vienna, Austria (solo)
Nam June Paik: Retrospective, Museum of Modern Art, Seoul, South Korea (solo)
Nam June Paik: Arti Elettroniche, Cinema e Media Verso il XXI Secolo, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, Italy (solo) 
Nam June Paik: Retrospective, Museum of Modern Art, Seoul, South Korea


Nam June Paik: Retrospective, Kunsthaus, Zurich; Kunsthalle, Basel, Switzerland (solo)
Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, Germany (solo)
Recent Video Sculptures, Carl Solway Gallery, Cincinnati, OH (solo)


Hans Mayer, Dusseldorf, Germany(solo)
Pre-Bell Man, Public Sculpture, Deutsches Post Museum, Frankfurt (solo)
Video Arbor (Public Sculpture), Forest City Residential Development, Philadelphia, PA (solo)
Galerie Maurice Keitelman, Brussels, Belgium (solo)
Holly Solomon Gallery, New York, NY (solo)


La Fée Electronique Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France (solo)
Galerie du Génie, Paris, France (solo)
Galerie de Paris, Paris, France (solo)
Mayor Rowan Gallery, London, England (solo)
Galerie Juana Mordo, Madrid, Spain(solo)
Weisses Haus, Hamburg, Germany (solo)
Image World: Art and Media Culture, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY


Nam June Paik: Beuys and Bogie, Dorothy Goldeen Gallery, Los Angeles, CA (solo)
Nam June Paik: Color Bar Paintings, Holly Solomon Gallery, New York, NY solo)
Nam June Paik: Family of Robot, Hayward Gallery, South Bank Centre, London, England (solo)


Nam June Paik: Sculpture, Painting and Laser Photography, Holly Solomon Gallery, New York, NY (solo)


Nam June Paik: Family of Robot, Carl Solway Gallery, Cincinnati, OH; International Art Exposition, Chicago, IL (solo)


Mostly Video, Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan (solo)
Tribute to Marshall McLuhan, Galerie Esperanza, Montreal, Canada (solo)


60'80 attitudes/concepts/images, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Nam June Paik, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL (solo)
Tri-Colour Video, Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris, France (solo) 
Retrospective, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL


Program of videotapes, Sony Hall, Tokyo, Japan (solo)
Random Access/Paper TV, Gallery Watari, Tokyo, Japan (solo)
Laser Video (with Horst Baumann), Die Nutzlichen Kunste, West Berlin, Germany (solo)


Nam June Paik (retrospective of videotapes)The New American Filmmakers Series, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY (solo)
Videa, Gallery Watari, Tokyo, Japan (solo)
Laser Video (with Horst Baumann, assisted by Peter Kolb), Stadtische Kunst-halle, Dusseldorf, Germany


A Tribute to John Cage, Gallery Watari, Tokyo, japan (solo)
Fluxus Traffic, Rene Block Gallery, Berlin, Germany
TV Garden, Musée d'Art Moderne, Centre National d'Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (solo)
Nam June Paik, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France (solo)


Projects: Nam June Paik, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (solo)
Fluxus Traffic, Galerie Rene Block, West Berlin, Germany (solo)
Nam June Paik, Galerie Marika Malacorda, Geneva, Switzerland (solo)


Moon is the Oldest TV-set, Rene Block Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
Nam June Paik: Werke 1946-1976: Musik-Fluxus-Video, Kolnischer Kunstverein, Cologne, Germany;Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (solo)
Fish Flies on Sky, Galeria Bonino, New York, NY (solo)
Video Film Concert (films in collaboration with Jud Yalkut), The Kitchen, New York, NY (solo)


Nam June Paik, Rene Block Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
Fish on the Sky-Fish hardly flies anymore on the Sky-let Fishes fly again, Martha Jackson Gallery, New York, NY (solo)


Nam June Paik: TV Sea: Electronic Art IV, Galeria Bonino, New York, NY (solo)
Nam June Paik: Video'n'Videology 1959-1973, Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY
Electronic Art IV, Galeria Bonino, New York, NY (solo)


Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY


Cineprobe, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
Videoshow, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
Elctronic Art III: Paik-Abe Video Synthesizer with Charlotte Moorman, Galeria Bonino in collaboration with Intermedia Institute, New York, NY
Hit and Run Screening of Video Films (films in collaboration with Jud Yalkut), Rizzoli Screening Room, New York, NY (solo)
Video Film Concert (films in collaboration with Jud Yalkut), Millennium Film Workshop, New York, NY (solo)


Cybernetic Serendipity: The Computer and the Arts, Institute of Contemporary Art, London, England
Nam June Paik, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY (solo)


Expanding Perceptions in the Arts, Art Center of the Paul Klapper Library, Queens College, City University of New York, NY (solo)


NJ Paik: Electronic TV, Color TV Experiments, 3 Robots, 2 Zen Boxes & 1 Zen Can, New School for Social Research New York, NY (solo) 
Galleria Bonino, New York, NY


Exposition of Music-Electronic Television, Galerie Parnass, Wuppertal, Germany (solo)


Galerie 22, Dusseldorf, Germany

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